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Éco mince oradea. REARANJARE Anale 2005 - GATA - Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice

Virgil Stanciu 1 In talking about such a topic, pessimism is almost inevitable. One piece of very depressing news in this respect is that the Encyclopedia Britannica, probably the most influential monument to culture created in Britain, has ceased to be published on paper and CD after years!

The last edition was printed inin sets, out of which only éco mince oradea were sold. One should distinguish between a crisis in literature fiction and a crisis of the study of literature in schools and universities.

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English departments, particularly in the US, have become places where mass culture movies, television, advertising, cartoons, comics, pornography and performance art is not only studied side by side with literary classics, but is oftentimes given priority éco mince oradea. Also, one should consider the frightening possibility that books as we know them now, i. But Amos Oz said in an interview granted to Antoaneta Ralian: There is and there always will be a hard core of impassioned readers.

If there were a long-term electricity cut in Romania or Israel, these people would read at the light of candles or of the last rays of the sun. Dictionaries define crisis as a condition of instability, as in social, economic, political or international affairs, leading to a decisive change. In literature, it has a narrower meaning: the point in a play or story in which hostile elements éco mince oradea most closely opposed to each other, so that a dénoument is imminent.

There is also a theological acceptation spiritual crisis, a crisis of faith, a personal crisis, common to all men, arising from the contradictions inherent in human nature and in the social order.

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Crisis in literature is by no means a new phenomenon. One can argue that every new stage in the history of any national literature has been the product of a crisis. Traditional literary forms and modalities becoming exhausted, literature came to a deadlock, a kind of stasis, from which it was saved by intrepid creators, who had the genius to devise new formulae.

Literary history looks upon crisis in the field of poetry and fiction as being a part of the general crisis of Western Europe, England included.

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There had been a crisis in English poetry in the 15 th century, when medieval civilization foundered in the dynastic wars and no new poet appeared capable of developing Chaucer s splendid realism and humour, or Langland s vivid criticism of society.

That crisis was put an end to by the Renaissance, which renewed contact with Italian humanism. The Elizabethan dramatists and, to a lesser extent, poets, engineered a successful fusion between the Apollonian poetry of the éco mince oradea and the Dionysian poetry of the people. The same fusion is to be found on a smaller scale in the best work of the metaphysical poets.

In the 17 th century, however, a spiritual disintegration was already beginning, one aspect of which was the division of poetry into polite or bardic verse in poetic vision and popular verse in colloquial diction, considered suitable only for light or comic themes. Another aspect was that separation of poetic thought from poetic feeling which T. Eliot named a dissociation of sensibility, and he noted its beginning in the age of Dryden. The great tradition of English poetic culture that began with Sidney and Spenser ended with Tennyson and Browning; the crisis marks the end of the great period of human history which began with the Renaissance and whose key words were humanism, individualism, liberalism, capitalism.

What followed was yet another Barren Age. High modernism was engendered éco mince oradea the crisis of Victorian thought and letters. Postmodernist fiction, in my opinion, is a literature of crisis. It could be described as a solution meant to postpone the death of literature, to prolong its agony. Fiction the epic genre as such seems to be a product of crisis.

Vargas Llosa points out in The Truth of Lies that when religious culture goes through a crisis, life seems to free itself of the precepts, dogmas and regulations that 7 8 articulated it, changing into chaos; this is the moment when fiction steps in its artificial order becomes a haven, provides safety, and fiction becomes a temporary replacement of life.

But fiction is richer than life, as it gives free reign to imagination, to desires and supplément de perte de poids comme adderall, so when we return to reality we feel brutally disappointed.

But the fantasies, exaggerations and falsities of fiction do help us express deep, unsettling truths, which otherwise we would not have the guts to state directly. That literature fiction in particular was entering a stasis period was the central idea of John Barth s essay The Literature of Exhaustion, which can be taken for a sign of the inset of postmodernism, the literature of crisis : art and its forms and techniques live in history and certainly do change.

I sympathize with a remark attributed to Saul Bellow, that to be technically up to date is the least important attribute of a writer, though I would have to add that this least important attribute may be nevertheless essential.

In any case, to be technically out of date is likely to be a genuine defect: Beethoven s Sixth Symphony or the Chartres Cathedral if executed today would be merely embarrassing. A good many current novelists write turn-of-the-century type novels, only in more or less mid-twentieth-century language and about contemporary people and topics; this makes them considerably less interesting to me than excellent éco mince oradea éco mince oradea are also technically contemporary: Joyce and Kafka, for instance, in their time, and in ours, Samuel Beckett and Jorge Luis Borges.

And John Barth continues: an artist may paradoxically turn the felt ultimacies of our time into materials and means for his work paradoxically because by doing so he transcends what had appeared to be his refutation in the same way that the mystic who transcends finitude is said to be able to live, spiritually and physically, in the finite world.

Suppose you are a writer by vocation a printoriented bastard, éco mince oradea the McLuhanites call us and you feel, for example, that the novel, if not narrative literature generally, if not the printed word altogether, has by this hour of the world just about shot its bolt, as Leslie Fiedler [see The Sense of an Ending] and others maintain.

I m inclined to agree, with reservations and 8 9 hedges. Literary forms certainly have histories and historical contingencies, and it might well be that the novel s time as a major art form is up, as the times of classical tragedy, grand opera, or the sonnet sequence came to be.

No necessary cause for alarm in this at all, except perhaps to certain novelists, and one was to handle such a feeling might be to write a novel about it.

Whether historically the novel expires or persists seems immaterial to me; if éco mince oradea writers feel apocalyptical about it, their feeling becomes a considerable cultural fact, like the feeling that Western civilization, or the world, is going to end rather soon.

If you took a éco mince oradea of people out into the desert and the world didn t end, you d come home shamefaced, I imagine; but the persistence of an art form doesn t invalidate work created in the comparable apocalyptic ambience.

That s one of the fringe benefits of being an artist instead of a prophet. There are others. If you were the author of this paper you would have written something like The Sot-Weed Factor or Giles Goat-Boy, novels éco mince oradea imitate the form of the Novel, by an author who imitates the role of Author.

Ibidem, p. Trilling was repelled at the narrative art of the present time. On the other hand, in his book The Novel Now, Anthony Burgess, sets out to survey prose fiction since the great figures of the modernistic period and finds some two hundred writers of fiction of sufficient quality, of considerable seriousness and significance.

Burgess s inclusiveness points out that an amazing number of writers of considerable skill and utterly chihuahua perte de poids convictions about the nature of their art are flourishing at the present éco mince oradea, that along with some remarkably innovative fiction there are also some true and moving books being written with the technical resources of Balzac and Trollope, and that anything we say about any segment of the enormous body of contemporary fiction is bound to look partial and unjustifiably exclusive.

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Malcolm Bradbury is also confident that the novel will survive, through sheer capability to adapt to contemporary topics and tastes: 9 10 It is certainly possible to discern, in the English novel more than in the bulk of novels written in France or the United States, an attempt to salvage a modern humanism, to maintain the idea of character against the swamping text; but a sense of inevitable pressures has promoted a strong experimental disposition.

Iris Murdoch s essay Éco mince oradea Dryness emphasizes that we are not isolated free choosers, that we live in a universe itself contingent and therefore brute and nameless, from which we urge order only through comprehension and love; to these matters the novelist must attend. In general, and despite the realistic bias of much contemporary literary reviewing in England, which has limited the fictional debate, the experimental potential of the novel has been strongly emphasized by contemporary English novelists.

The important thing is that these fictional developments be seen in the context of novel form significantly evolving and changing, if with somehow different weights and preoccupations in different countries. I presume the movement of fiction should always be in the direction of what we sense as real, wrote Ronald Sukenick, who entitled one of his books The Death of the Novel and Other Stories.

Its forms are expendable. The novelist accommodates the ongoing flow of experience, smashing anything that impedes his sense of it, even if it happens to be the novel. The Novel Today: Contemporary Writers on Modern Fiction Peter Childs in Contemporary Novelists: British Fiction sinceLondon, Palgrave, Macmillan, thinks the orientation towards the past may be an answer to the novel s difficulty in finding new subject-matter: A.

Byatt s work alongside several of Peter Ackroyd s novels and more recently Sarah Waters s is particularly associated with the reinscription of Victorian Britain.

She has argued that the project of writing the self in fiction has been overtaken by novelists returning to historical fiction for radical difference through the combination of the unknowable and imaginable.

The vogue for historical novels has not passed with the turning of the millennium, though there is perhaps a new trend emerging of novels that revisit the more recent past, exemplified in Jonathan Coe s What a Carve Up! These have emerged as conspicuous themes after éco mince oradea preoccupations with gender and form in the s and along side conjectural writing on the effects of Thatcherism and capitalism in the s.

The Internet, more than TV, has brought about a diminution of interest in printed reading materials newspapers, history books, fiction and poetry which are being replaced by electronic reading materials. My contention is that whereas the Internet is a great leap forward inasmuch as the possibility of acquiring information is concerned, in what regards literature, particularly poetry, but also fiction, it is a disaster.

People will gradually become less interested in the reading of poetry and fiction on a laptop, i-pad or Éco mince oradea, one of the reasons being that it takes a long time to read a novel and the electronic tools demand concentration. As the late Ray Bradbury put it, You don t have to burn books to destroy a culture.

It is enough to make people stop reading them. Several recent books are meant to warn professional and amateur readers of the unstable condition in which literature finds itself today. Thus, in The Death of Literature Yale University Press,Alvin Kernan demonstrates that literature has gone through a crisis of confidence in the last three decades; he looks at éco mince oradea agents that have contributed to literature s demise and ponders whether the vitality can be restored in the changing circumstances of today.

Kernan relates the death of literature to potent forces in our post-industrial world, most obviously the technological revolution that is rapidly changing a print culture into an electronic culture, replacing the authority of the written word with the authority of television, film and the computer screen.

D'autre part, la réalité.

The turn taken by literary criticism is another destructive 11 12 agent. It deconstructs literature and declares it void of meaning in itself and focuses on cultural and ideological aspects see what Harold Bloom calls the school of resentment. According to Kernan, there are agents of literary disintegration in schools, where children watch TV or use the Internet but cannot think for themselves and can barely read; in Faculties, where there are constant fights over the canon.

According to Kernan, traditional literature is ceasing to be legitimate or useful in these changed social surroundings.

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He argues that what is needed is a conception of literature that fits in some positive way with the ethos of postindustrialism. In The Closing of the American Mind, considered by Saul Bellow a sweeping analysis of the intellectual currents of our century, essential to an éco mince oradea of America s malaise, Alan Bloom observes that the students have lost their taste for reading, since they have not learned how to read in the first place, and thus have no expectations of delight or improvement from it.

Moreover, they have only pop psychology to tell them what people are like and the range of their motives. Hence he argues that the reason for their failure to read good books is due to the belief that the here and now is all there is. The self, says Bloom, which has suffered from a three hundred year long identity crisis, is the modern substitute for the soul.

The power of creativity is revealed through art and through the ordering of chaos. From the author s point of view, a true personality is he who can take his person a chaos of impressions and desires, a thing whose very unity is doubtful and manages to give it order and unity.

Culture represents the peak expression of man s creativity, his capacity to break out of nature s narrow bonds. It is the place where man finds his dignity and also stands for the house of the self. In Nietzsche s view, man has lost the capacity to create and appreciate value, and in the present exhaustion of old values, he must turn within himself to reconstitute the condition of his creativity in order to generate values.

The crisis of liberal éco mince oradea, as viewed by the author, is a reflection of the crisis at the peaks of learning, an incoherence and incompatibility among the first principles éco mince oradea which we interpret the world, not to mention an intellectual crisis which nevertheless constitutes the crisis of our civilization.

These figures show that the nation is losing sight of its fundamental values and does not appreciate creativity. If Americans continue upon this downward trend, the chances of literature making its way back into the every-day lives of Americans will diminish tragically.

In a society where technical and vocational skills are at a constant rising demand, Solomon argues, it is easy to see how literature has been weeded out of the equation. People deem the study of literature to be a non-contributing factor to success. Americans no longer see the need for a balanced education; they lose sight of the fact that only literature can pose questions about human life and morality.

The drive to better ourselves can only come from within. However, when surveying centuries of fiction-writing, one is bound to notice that there have éco mince oradea several moments of crisis in the evolution of the form, and that each of them was overcome.

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Judging by the éco mince oradea and diversity of recent British and American fiction, by the upsurge of creativity displayed by it, one feels entitled to hope that there will be a revival of fiction, in its classical or electronic format, in the years to come.

Thus, our initial pessimism turns into moderate optimism. Crisis is no monolithic concept in the aforementioned genre; indeed it yields a multitude of nuances that I attempt to decode hereby. Keywords: crisis; shopaholic; consumerism; cornucopia; ethics; postmodernism.

Introduction It is the assumption of this paper that instantiations of crisis in its multiple facets can be detected in chick lit novels at large and in the novel under scrutiny here.

The prevalent sub-ategory of the generic term crisis that I identify in Sophie Kinsella s Shopaholic Abroad published in is the financial crisis éco mince oradea our heroine experiences in her shopaholic stance. The éco mince oradea crisis and its myriad facets Forever embroiled in pernicious financial decisions and debt, Becky Bloomwood a.

Shopaholic éco mince oradea yet another disastrous decision as regards spending that is triggered by a seemingly misinterpreted piece of advice that her boyfriend gives her: People who want to make a million borrow a million first.

The misinterpretation thereof can be arguably decoded as ideological: Becky s mindset is one of excess, of indulging in shameless consumerism, indeed of reveling in cornucopia, the cornucopia that the shopping malls display. She transfers rational, positivist, economic thought onto a discourse of frivolousness: 1 University of Oradea 14 15 Well, OK.

I have got a bit of an overdraft. But the only reason is, I ve been taking the long view recently, and investing quite heavily in my career. Luke, my boyfriend is an entrepreneur. He s got his own financial PR company and everything. And he said something a few weeks ago which really made sense to me: People who want to make a million borrow a million first. Honestly, I must have a naturally entrepreneurial mind, because as soon as he said it, I felt this weird chord of recognition.

  1. Они исчезли.
  2. Мы ждали вашего прихода", Элвин понял, что барьеры рухнули.

I even found myself murmuring it aloud. He s so right. How can you expect to make any money if you don t spend it first? So I graham crackers perte de poids invested in quite a few outfits to wear on the television plus a few good haircuts, and quite a few manicures and facials. And a couple of massages. Because everyone knows you can t perform well if you re all stressed, can you? Kinsella Hedonism overrides any considerations of financial sense with Becky and her entanglement in debt apparently does not make her flinch from her pleasure-seeking trajectory.

The quotation above also yields a clear-cut dichotomy between the Protestant, modernist ethics of work on the one hand and the superficial esthetic values of postmodern hedonism and image suffusion. It is, more simply put, an ideological vacillation between what Baudrillard 84; quoted in Bewes, labels what is produced and what can be thought or concealed : In America, éco mince oradea Baudrillardonly what is produced or manifested has meaning; for us in Europe only what can éco mince oradea thought or concealed has meaning.

Bewes: It is beyond the reflection on the incongruities between the Old and the New World about an interplay between the values of work, of the produced object per se and éco mince oradea of the aura of the object, its connotative added value; in Becky s assessment, the interplay between investing the money versus spending it, i.

At a semantic - pragmatic level, Becky here takes her boyfriend s advice quite literally: spend, borrow, consume first, then reap. This also is part and parcel of the postmodern condition, as Jamesoncommenting on Becker s model 2 states: Here too, then, he i. Becker fails of absolute 2 Gary Becker, in his An Economic Approach to Human Behavior,Chicago, puts forward that the economic approach provides a valuable unified framework for understanding all human behavior.

P 16 postmodernity, where the transcoding 3 process has as a consequence the suspension of everything that used to be literal. Jameson Hers is a transcoding act, as Becky prescriptively, if casually, embraces two discourses, the one her boyfriend refers her to the discourse of utilitarianism and her preferred discourse of shopaholism.

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On yet another of her consumerist exploits, visiting Sephora one of the postmodern shrines of object adulation on Broadway, Becky again engages on an epistemological trip of muddled values: There s music pounding, and girls milling everywhere under the spotlights, and trendyguys in black polo necks and headsets handing out goody bags. I turn dazedly around: I ve never seen so much makeup in my life. Rows and rows of lipsticks. Rows and rows of nail polishes. In all the colors of the rainbow. And oh look, there are little chairs where you can sit and try it all on, with free cotton buds and everything.

This place is I mean, it s heaven. I nod at him, then half walk, half lurch to a row of little bottles of nail polish, labeled things like Cosmic Intelligence and Lucid Dream. As I gaze at the display, I feel overcome with emotion. These bottles are speaking to me.

They re telling me that if I just paint my nails with the right color, everything éco mince oradea instantly make sense and my life will fall into place. Kinsella: It is not only that Becky virtually reverses axiologies my life will fall into place as if what matters primarily in life in point of values is esthetics and the body beautiful, but she also engages in a game of overt personification by having objects speak to her These bottles are éco mince oradea to me thus celebrating the prevalence of materialism alongside a more subtle, covert stance of reification, i.